Radiology Case of the Week | Peritoneal Pericardial Diaphragmatic Hernias
Peritoneal-pericardial diaphragmatic hernia (PPDH) is a congenital condition whereby the normal anatomic separation between the pericardium and peritoneal cavity fails to form in-utero. This abnormal communication between the aforementioned cavities can result in a shift of abdominal contents into the pericardial space.
Many patients do not exhibit clinical signs. In patients with clinical signs, the severity depends on which abdominal organs have migrated and on how much the vascular supply and function of each organ has diminished. Clinical signs may range from that of gastrointestinal (e.g. vomiting, diarrhea, etc) to respiratory and rarely patients may exhibit signs of cardiac failure or tamponade.
Colloquial terms for these felines include ‘twisty’ or ‘kangaroo cat,’ and ‘squitten’ (as these cats tend to sit on their haunches with short forelimbs, similar to a squirrel). A singular etiology is not known, however this is likely to be in part a hereditary condition and therefore breeding is discouraged.
Treatment for clinical cases of PPDH is surgical intervention. Prognosis is generally good with surgical correction.
Burns, CG, Bergh, MS and McLoughlin, MA. Surgical and nonsurgical treatment of peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in dogs and cats: 58 cases (1999-2008). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013 Mar 1;242(5):643-50
Farrow, Charles S. Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging: The Dog and Cat, Volume I. Mosby, 2003. P. 478
Sisson, David. Pericardial Disease: Diagnosis and Management. WSAVA Conference Proceedings, 2002.